soccer has strict rules about this. a player can lose his career by using steroids
The rules may seem strict but they are in no way strict.
All they usually do is test players pee instead of blood tests.
Also, FIFA is doing everything to sweep the doping problematic under the carpet because there is so much money involved. It is similar to the NBA. The doping tests are a farce so FIFA/UEFA can claim the sport is almost doping free but reality is probably a completely different animal.
It has been known that multiple teams collectively doped while winning important titles but nothing ever happened. Marseille CL title early 90's, Juve team in the 90's.
The rules are very strict but nobody really bothers about it.
I have friends in Greek SECOND division and even on Third and in other leagues (Cyprus, Greek top flight, English lower divisions, Italian lower divisions) and everyone says: "if you don't take drugs you're left behind, everyone takes them".
They are even well hidden from anti-doping tests or they know which players are going to be tested each time.
This doesn't really give many teams a huge boost over others as most teams do it. So it pretty much "helps" the game as players can play 90 minute games for a whole year efficiently. You need to go way down the division ladder to find 'clean' teams.
The msot common cases are cocaine I think because that's very hard to cover and it doesn't really enhance anything in the long run.
It's no coincidence that so many people die off heart attacks before their 25th or 30th birthdays.